Emiliya Mehman İslamova

Baku State University Sophomore, History faculty emiliya.islamova@bsu.edu.az

       The Hulaguid ruler Ghazan khan aimed to recover the imperial power through the political, economic and social reforms. He implemented religious, land, tax, judicial and other reforms. These reforms prevented the decline of Hulaguids and the economic condition of the population had improved. His Grand vizier Fazlullah Rashiduddin played an important role of initiator of reforms.  

       Fazlullah Rashiduddin (1247-1318) was great vizier of Ilkhanates, statesman, scientist, historian, prominent physician of the period. In 1298, he was appointed to the Grant vizier position. In fact, during twelve years (1298—1318) of his service he controlled all the affairs of palace. Rashiduddin had 14 monumental works about agriculture, medicine, philosophy, history and etc. He started to write “Jami at-Tawarikh”, one of the most important works on history, in 1300 by the order of Ghazan khan and it was introduced to the Sultan Oljaytu in 1310. It consists of 2 parts: the firs part was dedicated to the state of Mongols and the second, dedicated to the history of the world. It also includes “Oghuzname”, book of Oghuz tribes.  There the events are traced from the time when the Ilkhanates dynasty came to power, and the genealogy is given.

          Rashidaddin also had known as Rashid al-Tabib, because he was the great doctor and physician, who know features of nature well. Namely with the financial support of his family Fazlullah Rashidaddin was trained as a physician and could take the best education of medicine, because his family was rich enough, and their social status allowed it. Fazlullah Rashidaddin was born into a Persian Jewish family from Hamadan. But he had been adopted Islam when he has come to the Ilkhanates palace of Abaga khan. Approximately, Fazlullah Rashidaddin has converted to Islam by the age of 30. As a person who grew up as a Buddhist and converted to Islam, he knew the intricacies of both religions, that is why during his ministry period he could find common point between the various religions and sects which was widespread in the Ilkhanates state. Fazlullah Rashidaddin, who combined the humanistic aspects of religions, soon began to apply it in state policy. By the order of Fazlullah Rashidaddin, nobody could destroy any religion center or house, building and etc. Everybody, regardless of religion was protected by the government, no one could be subjected to any religious pressure on the territory of the state. This great success of religion of the İlkhanates was based on Rashidaddin’s religious theory. Rather, to unite all religions, to create equal opportunities for everyone.

       Rashidaddin was not in the palace by a chance, his family was always close to the İlkhanates dynasty. His grandfather had been the courtier during the reign of Hulagu Khan, the founder of Ilkhanates state. Also, his father was an apothecary* at the court. So, on his turn he started service under the ruler Abaqa Khan. For a while, he worked in the court In Soltaniyye, near Qazvin. He began his career in the palace as physician. Rashidaddin became the powerful vizier of the Ilkhanates during the reign of Ghazan.

        He played a major role in the state’s activities in the cultural sphere, especially in the field of education. Fazlullah Rashidaddin moved to Tabriz, lived and worked there. At the beginning of the 14th century, he established the Rabi-Rashidi Campus and the Darush-Shafa (House of Healing) scientific center in Tabriz. Rabi-Rashidi was an entire quarter of the town with educational, medical, scientific institutions, including the observatory. “Darush-Shafa”, being a hospital, was also a university (madrasah) like modern universities, where, along with Azerbaijani scientists and teachers, there were invited specialists from different countries, such as China, India, Syria and Egypt. There were tens of thousands of manuscripts brought from Egypt, China and other countries. The rich libraries organized by Rashidaddin were considered to be the second largest scientific center in the country after the library opened by Nasiraddin Tusi. In order to preserve the wealth of books, Rashid al-Din repeatedly copied the pages of the books he considered the most important to his calligraphers and sent them to other libraries in the country so that would not be lost during natural disasters. Every year 6,000-7,000 students from different countries of the East came here to study natural sciences, philosophy, history, medicine, astronomy and logic.

After death of Ghazan khan, he served as vizier and physician under the Ilkhanates emperor Oljaytu. In 1314, Oljaytu khan dead as a result of the assassination. And then Rashidaddin’s fortune turned out him. Abu Said khan came to the Ilkhanates’ throne and his close vizier afraid of Rashidaddin’s power. Soon Rashidaddin fell to court intrigues and finally he lost his respect during the reign of Abu Said Khan. Abu Said’s ministers used this internal disputes and situation. Ministers accused him of plotting to assassinate of Oljaytu. Rashidaddin was charged with poisoning the Ilkhanates king Oljaytu, He was executed in 1318. His Jewish origin was widely used in court. His property was confiscated. His son, Ghiyasaddin ibn Rashidaddin briefly served as vizier after him, who was murdered too, because of the struggle for succession.

            It should be noted that Rashidaddin was always loyal to the government, the Ilkhanates dynasty, and the ruler, and also he did his best for the development and prosperity of the state.

 

BIBLIOGRAPHY:

  1. History of Azerbaijan. Textbook for HEI, by Mehman Abdullayev. Publisher: “Baku University Press”. Baku, 2017, pp.401
  2. Gazan han ve reformlari (694/1295-703/1304) (Doktora Tezi) Hazırlayan Osman G. Özkuzugüdenli. İstanbul 2000, 364 pages
  3. Piriyev Vaqif. Azərbaycan XIII-XIV əsrlərdə. Bakı, Nurlan, 2003. 458 pages
  4. Rəşidəddin. Oğuznamə. Hazırlayan İsmixan Osmanlı. Bakı: Azərbaycan Milli Ensiklopediyası NPB, 2003, 108 pages
  5. Фазлуллах Рашид-ад-дин. Джами-ат-таварих. Баку, “Нагыл Еви”, 2011. 540 pages

 

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